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Auditors use behavioral red flags (BRFs) to examine which individuals are more prone to unwarranted behavior like corruption and asset misappropriation. Using a rich data set from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), we analyze the impact of BRFs on loss sizes from asset misappropriation. We control for anti-fraud mechanisms established at the company level and other factors both at the individual and the firm level. Performing an exploratory factor analysis yields six factors for BRFs which capture the principal perpetrator’s situation at the private level and the workplace. A general wheeler-dealer attitude and financial distress significantly increase loss sizes. By contrast, we find no evidence that non-monetary private problems lead to higher losses.
E-commerce market development depends on the configuration of factors which both enable its further development, but might as well hinder its adoption by consumers. In particular, emerging markets provide numerous opportunities for e-commerce; however, they are also associated with specific barriers, limiting the potential for fully exploiting these opportunities. With an Internet audience of 93 mln people, the Russian emerging market represents the largest online audience in Europe, stimulating substantial e-commerce growth over the last decade. The main objective of this paper is to explore consumer perception of e-commerce adoption factors on two levels — the first are the macro-level factors, associated with the overall environment, institutional factors and trust; the second one is store-level factors, or factors associated with real consumer experiences. This multi-level approach reflects the complexity of consumer thinking about the market — both in terms of the evolving environment, offering opportunities to make decisions and make purchases; and real experience, where the factors are influencing particular consumer decisions and are weighted by consumers as pros and cons. Our study is based on a survey, using a sample of 3 387 respondents representing the consumer perspective. The findings reveal the structure of the driving and limiting factors, highlighting the core role of the trustworthiness and transparency of the e-commerce market players, delivery conditions and store-related risks.
Russia is the largest country in the world, ranking 9th by population with 146.8 million people living on its territory. Russia contains 30% of the world’s natural resources, making it the most resource-rich country in the world. The Russian economy is 6th in the world in terms of GDP (purchasing power parity), according to the IMF. In the Global competitiveness report, Russia ranked 43rd out of 140. Our study of companies’ strategic capabilities is based on a comparative analysis of 5 firms operating in Russia. Three of them are domestic – SIBUR (Siberian-Ural petrochemical and Gas Company), Gazprom Marketing & Trading (part of the Gazprom group), and ByTerg, all representing exporters in the high-tech industry, and 2 multinational companies (MNCs) – Ecolab and Swilar, representing the high-tech and service industries respectively. This qualitative study, relying on semi-structured interviews, revealed that customer orientation is a crucial strategic capability, highlighted by all firms. Very important strategic capabilities also include product manufacturing and general sales capabilities (highlighted by 80% of respondents).
This study presents a snapshot of investment projects in manufacturing that were implemented
by foreign investors in Russia during 2017–2018. We assemble a unique database of all new
plants opened by foreign companies in Russia during 2012–2018 to clarify the distribution of
investment projects implemented during 2017–2018 across industries and territories with
different tax regimes. We also identify the most interesting individual investment projects,
interrelated investment projects, and elements of collective actions. In general, foreign investors
in manufacturing demonstrate high ingenuity in discovering and exploiting the remaining
emerging growing market segments and promising niches in consumer and professional markets
and express significant persistence in realizing investment projects. We also demonstrate the
methods applied to decrease the uncertainty of the project costs by establishing partnerships with
local foreign- and domestically owned companies and the attempts to correct the government’s
decisions and regulatory measures that are uncomfortable for foreign investors.
This book discusses important topics for engineering and managing software startups, such as how technical and business aspects are related, which complications may arise and how they can be dealt with. It also addresses the use of scientific, engineering, and managerial approaches to successfully develop software products in startup companies.
The book covers a wide range of software startup phenomena, and includes the knowledge, skills, and capabilities required for startup product development; team capacity and team roles; technical debt; minimal viable products; startup metrics; common pitfalls and patterns observed; as well as lessons learned from startups in Finland, Norway, Brazil, Russia and USA. All results are based on empirical findings, and the claims are backed by evidence and concrete observations, measurements and experiments from qualitative and quantitative research, as is common in empirical software engineering.
The book helps entrepreneurs and practitioners to become aware of various phenomena, challenges, and practices that occur in real-world startups, and provides insights based on sound research methodologies presented in a simple and easy-to-read manner. It also allows students in business and engineering programs to learn about the important engineering concepts and technical building blocks of a software startup. It is also suitable for researchers at different levels in areas such as software and systems engineering, or information systems who are studying advanced topics related to software business.
The article is devoted to a new direction in the field of human resource management - HR-analytics. HR analytics has been actively developing in the past decade as an interdisciplinary field. The leading role in this area is played by information technologies that allow working with big data . However, an analysis of existing approaches to HR analytics shows that it is a kind of a well-known social engineering approach from the beginning of the 20th century, focused on the development and practical application of various kinds of social technologies. Analysis of the stages, methods and approaches used in HR-analytics, gives reason to consider it as a kind of diagnostic social technology. Its development logic in the digital economy requires the use of modern methods of collecting, storing, analyzing heterogeneous and often unstructured data. This allows us to consider HR analytics in the context of management development in a digital economy.
The title of the book refers to the sociological survey, conducted by the "Public opinion" Fund in 2000. It is focused on the representation of Internet as a complex phenomenon in modern Russia. First, the Internet is considered as part of the media system that not only rapidly developing, but also significantly transforming the system as a whole. Second, it contains the analysis of main online markets in Russia. Thirdly, the Internet is analyzed in political, social and cultural contexts.
This book contains an in-depth overview of the current state of the recently emerged and rapidly growing theory of Gnk groups, picture-valued invariants, and braids for arbitrary manifolds. Equivalence relations arising in low-dimensional topology and combinatorial group theory inevitably lead to the study of invariants, and good invariants should be strong and apparent. An interesting case of such invariants is picture-valued invariants, whose values are not algebraic objects, but geometrical constructions, like graphs or polyhedra.
In 2015, V O Manturov defined a two-parametric family of groups Gnk and formulated the following principle: if dynamical systems describing a motion of n particles possess a nice codimension 1 property governed by exactly k particles then these dynamical systems possess topological invariants valued in Gnk.
The book is devoted to various realisations and generalisations of this principle in the broad sense. The groups Gnk have many epimorphisms onto free products of cyclic groups; hence, invariants constructed from them are powerful enough and easy to compare. However, this construction does not work when we try to deal with points on a 2-surface, since there may be infinitely many geodesics passing through two points. That leads to the notion of another family of groups — Γnk, which give rise to braids on arbitrary manifolds yielding invariants of arbitrary manifolds.
email@example.comPrefaceWhat is Runet?There are at least three possible answers to this question. First, it is a segment ofthe Internet with content in Russian language. Second, it is a segment of the Internetassociated with the domain zone .RU. Third, it is the national—Russian—segmentof the Internet. The latter definition is the closest one to the idea of this book.However, the use of this elusive term will be presented with different layers ofmeaning in the following pages. Herein also lies the general concept of the book.Our contributors do not always agree with each other and sometimes expressnon-coinciding opinions. What they all certainly agree on, however, is that the Runetdeserves to be written about.In recent years, we hear more and more often that the so-called new media are infact not so new. Communication technologies, which were breathtaking a quarter ofa century ago, have become routines, even sometimes banal, and are neverthelessstill able to bring surprises. Today, for many people in the world the Internet is partof everyday life. And Russia is no exception.
Using the secondary data sources, we identified all new factories, opened by foreign multinational corporations in Russia in 2012-2018. Almost 80% of the 261 factories opened in the last seven years are located in just 20 Russian administrative regions. Moscow (city and oblast), Kaluga oblast, St.Petersburg and Leningrad oblast, The Republic of Tatarstan, Lipetsk oblast, Nizhny Novgorod oblast and Ulyanovsk oblast are the leaders in accommodating foreign industrial investments. The majority of foreign investors preferred special economic zones and industrial parks as territories for installation of new facilities. Proximity to suppliers, availability of the local market, preferred tax regime, guaranteed infrastructure and articulated care of the local authority about the needs of foreign investors are the main factors that determine the choice of the region for industrial investments of foreign corporations.
Childhood malnutrition is associated with high morbidity and mortality globally1. Undernourished children are more likely to experience cognitive, physical, and metabolic developmental impairments that can lead to later cardiovascular disease, reduced intellectual ability and school attainment, and reduced economic productivity in adulthood2. Child growth failure (CGF), expressed as stunting, wasting, and underweight in children under five years of age (0–59 months), is a specific subset of undernutrition characterized by insufficient height or weight against age-specific growth reference standards3,4,5. The prevalence of stunting, wasting, or underweight in children under five is the proportion of children with a height-for-age, weight-for-height, or weight-for-age z-score, respectively, that is more than two standard deviations below the World Health Organization’s median growth reference standards for a healthy population6. Subnational estimates of CGF report substantial heterogeneity within countries, but are available primarily at the first administrative level (for example, states or provinces)7; the uneven geographical distribution of CGF has motivated further calls for assessments that can match the local scale of many public health programmes8. Building from our previous work mapping CGF in Africa9, here we provide the first, to our knowledge, mapped high-spatial-resolution estimates of CGF indicators from 2000 to 2017 across 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where 99% of affected children live1, aggregated to policy-relevant first and second (for example, districts or counties) administrative-level units and national levels. Despite remarkable declines over the study period, many LMICs remain far from the ambitious World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets to reduce stunting by 40% and wasting to less than 5% by 2025. Large disparities in prevalence and progress exist across and within countries; our maps identify high-prevalence areas even within nations otherwise succeeding in reducing overall CGF prevalence. By highlighting where the highest-need populations reside, these geospatial estimates can support policy-makers in planning interventions that are adapted locally and in efficiently directing resources towards reducing CGF and its health implications
Over the last decade academic literature faced a boom of publications devoted to the notion of ecosystem, which resulted in the emergence of various research streams and corresponding fragmentation of the research domain. Existing variety of meanings and contradictory definitions necessitates conducting a thorough literature review on three tightly coupled concepts of innovation ecosystem, business ecosystem and entrepreneurial ecosystem. This study is based upon a mixed technique, which combines bibliometric analysis and in-depth investigation of papers devoted to these research streams. Trough examining their theoretical background, constructing conceptual structures and in-depth analysis we were able to define the essence of innovation, business and entrepreneurial ecosystems as well as their distinctive features. Then we proceed with the comparative analysis of these concepts, which allowed us to outline existing similarities and to demarcate them from an ontological perspective. This study provides certain clarification for the existing conceptual mix in the field of ecosystem research and can be used as a foundation for a further investigation of the concept.
This chapter focuses on identifying motivation for socially responsible behavior in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Russia. It also investigates the attitudes of owners and executives of Russian SMEs toward the concepts of business ethics and social responsibility of business. A research set the background of this chapter, including the gathering of primary data through 57 focused interviews. Results of a critical analysis conclude that top managers and owners of Russian SMEs do not thoroughly understand these concepts. However, it also shows that they do not neglect them. Research findings point to a growing level of adherence to the principles of business ethics and responsible behavior. There is strong evidence showing motivation for following principles of ethical and responsible behavior. In addition to an understanding of legal requirements, company owners and top managers are finding that positive relationships between firms and stakeholders are crucial for sustainable performance.
Purpose – This articlepresents concepts and tools for developing place branding that protects places from overbranding, redundant promotion, and excessive tourism.
Methodology – The concept of a product-based place brand that reflects local ways of life and local identities was introduced was introduced. A combination of projective and typological methods was applied. Three focus groups composed of future place managers were held in three countries (N= 27) to develop place brand vocabularies − typologies of verbal characteristics of abstract places as products for internal users (residents).
Findings – In most cases, the place brand vocabularies were consistent and compatible within each abstract type and were unique (mutually exclusive) between the types. The vocabularies contained both detailed and more generalized elements. For each abstract place, short formulations of the general concept were found. Each brand vocabulary reflected the institutional, socio-psychological, cultural, historical, and geographic differences of the countries involved in the research.
Originality/value –A conceptual and methodological framework for creating place brand vocabularies is offered and it provides (1) close relationship between multiple brand attributes and their laconic expressions appropriate for communication and (2) high differentiation among brand attributes facilitates the recognition of branded places by target and non-target audiences. The framework is applicable for designing verbal attributes of place brands for specific places to avoid overbranding effects.
We explore the meaning of rituals of public plant-opening ceremonies, which are popular in many countries and mandatory in Russia for greenfield investment projects implemented by multinational corporations. The study is based on the analysis of videos from the public opening ceremonies supplemented with the analysis of financial data on the studied industrial projects. We argue that in a country with underdeveloped physical infrastructure and volatile business regulations opening ceremonies for new industrial projects have three implications: 1) such events are festivities which are centered on an exchange of gratitude between foreign investors and the local authorities for their non-opportunistic behavior; and 2) such events serve as “the rite of passage” of a newly-built facility into the local business and social infrastructure; 3) assurances in speeches during opening ceremonies about the long-term nature of industrial projects are taken seriously as obligations and serve as an additional barrier to exit from industrial assets.
The paper describes a new form of investment attraction recently introduced in Russia—territories of outrunning socio- economic development (TOSEDs). These initiatives provide tax and other benefits to 20 territories in the Far East and to 90 cities in which a considerable number of jobs are concen- trated in a single factory (mono-cities). Using secondary sour- ces and interviews, we present the initial legislation for TOSEDs, the evolution of the initial legislation, and the func- tioning of TOSED residents. We also identify several opportuni- ties for foreign investors who have installed or intend to install their new manufacturing facilities in TOSEDs.
Taking the individual data from the European Social Survey of 2004 and 2010, the authors of this paper investigate how employment type (permanent, temporary or informal employment) affects subjective well-being in respect to employment protection legislation across European countries. Our study outcomes are in line with previous research disclosing the negative impact of being temporally or informally employed on subjective well-being. The additional contribution of this study is the rigorous analysis of how employment protection legislation (EPL) moderates this effect by applying the multilevel modeling approach for 27 countries. In countries with strict EPL temporary and informal workers are significantly less satisfied with their lives than permanent employees. In countries with liberal EPL no significant decreasing effect from temporary or informal employment on people’s subjective well-being was found.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify hotel halal attributes demanded by the Russian customers. Following this, the study aims to investigate whether gender and types of travelers influence the demand for hotel halal attributes.
Design/methodology/approach – Semi-structured interviews were conducted to localize the list of hotel halal attributes for the Russian business context. A self-administrated online questionnaire was designed, distributed and collected from 191 Russian customers, who have experience of staying at halal hotels in the last 12 months. Data analysis includes t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Findings – The study revealed a list of halal attributes demanded by Russian hotel guests. Also, the findings indicate the list of the attributes demonstrated the differences in the demanded attributes between gender and types of travelers
Research limitations/implications – The study is limited to a leisure tourists’ sample. Also, the study limited to the majority of the respondents having university degrees.
Practical implications - The study provides a clear understanding of the hotel halal attributes demanded by Russian Muslims that can help hotel managers to tailor their hotel services to the needs of this group meeting, at the same time, the requirements of guests of different nationalities and religions.
Originality/value - This research contributes to tourism and hospitality management and consumer behavior literature, primarily, as this is the first research yielding insights on a new demographic within for the form of academic literature customers’ segment: Russian Muslim tourists
Paper type – Research paper
This paper retraces the development of Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of Western multinational corporations from the late 1980s until 2019. Using secondary sources and a unique hand-crafted database on significant extensions of manufacturing facilities of Western multinational corporations in Russia during 2012–2018, we present the position of Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of Western multinational corporations before and after the beginning of sanctions. We also indicate the major strategic challenges that they currently face, including the necessity to maintain dual loyalty (to home country and host country authorities), manage the deteriorating quality of business regulations in Russia, and overcome the increasing shortage of qualified personnel at all levels. The data on the opening of new facilities in 2017–2018 reveal that such issues impede but cannot stop the quantitative development of foreign-owned Russian manufacturing facilities. At the same time, saving on managerial expenses and low ‘investments in non-current assets’ of the established manufacturing subsidiaries may break down ‘the innovation engine’ assembled in many Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of Western multinational corporations and bring them into the periphery of their corporate parents, where the attention and resources from the corporate centre are lacking.