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The evolution of epidemiological burden in Imperial Russia and, consecutively, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), took place mostly over the duration of the past century. It is very important since dozens of Eastern European and Asian nations, with similarities in life style, regardless of dominant Orthodox Christian, Sunni-Shia Islamic, or Shamanic ethno-religious patterns, share this old statehood tradition. This profound change reflected in gradual movement from communicable, infectious diseases, traumatism, and early childhood and maternal mortality towards chronic non-communicable diseases . To some extent, these changes were accelerated by two world wars and the deep regulatory reforms of social and pension systems, together with health care provision and financing mechanisms imposed, as a result of the Bolshevik, October Revolution in 1917. This long-term evolution, particularly in the post-World War II decades, was ultimately associated with the occurrence of population aging throughout entire Northern Hemisphere . It got worse in the East due to the deep Russian recession reaching the bottom in 1998 and effectively dragging all mutually dependent formerly centrally-planned economies . Compared to their Western European counterparts, Russian and other Eastern European ethnicities mostly remain in a slightly earlier stage of population ageing, which is yet tangible by serious policies . Since the beginning of the 21st century, bold economic recovery and growth took place, ultimately leading to successful fertility policies. The boost in total fertility levels, which was raised from 1.3 to 1.7 children per woman of reproductive age, was the highest net achievement of its kind by any European country during the second decade of the 21st century . All of these complex historical changes following the business cycles  in the capitalist free-market economies had heavily reflected the ability of the Russian Federation and its predecessor states to increase investment in healthcare and provide equitable and affordable medical care to its citizens . Therefore, this paper attempts to look at the inner legislative evolution of health financing in Russia over the last 100 years.
Auditors use behavioral red flags (BRFs) to examine which individuals are more prone to unwarranted behavior like corruption and asset misappropriation. Using a rich data set from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), we analyze the impact of BRFs on loss sizes from asset misappropriation. We control for anti-fraud mechanisms established at the company level and other factors both at the individual and the firm level. Performing an exploratory factor analysis yields six factors for BRFs which capture the principal perpetrator’s situation at the private level and the workplace. A general wheeler-dealer attitude and financial distress significantly increase loss sizes. By contrast, we find no evidence that non-monetary private problems lead to higher losses.
This section examines the possibilities of economic growth in Russia from the perspective of organizational capability development, namely through the study of best managerial practices of multinational companies (MNCs) doing business in Russia, and their use by Russian companies. Under the conditions of tightening competition, companies are forced to focus on the development of organizational capabilities. Our large-scale empirical research into the managerial capabilities and management practices of multinational and Russian companies, employs a comprehensive sample of 1,530 companies and 1,245 companies in 2016 and 2017 respectively, covering the 10 main sectors of economic activity in Moscow and the Moscow region. The analysis was performed across five managerial capabilities in communication, leadership, problem solving and decision-making, conflict resolution, and motivation, each subdivided into 5 management practices. Using statistical methods, we identified the major statistically significant differences in and between the managerial practices of multinational and Russian companies operating in the Russian market, and their dynamics in 2016 - 2017. Taking MNCs operating in the Russian market as a benchmark, we discover that Russian companies need to close the gap in 17 out of the 25 managerial practices in order to maintain competitiveness in the Russian market and be able to influence their economic growth in Russia.
The paper is devoted to the assessment of the prospects of implementing clean energy sources in Russia, where the current energy policy goal is to increase the role of renewable and clean energy sources. The research is based on data from the Krasnoyarsk Region as one of the largest territories but also as a representative model of Russia. The aim of the study is to identify where and which renewable energy source (solar, wind, hydro and nuclear) has the highest potential. The novelty of our research lies in its holistic nature: authors consider both geographical and technical potential for renewable energy sources development as well as prospective demand for such resources, while previous research is mostly focused on specific aspects of renewable energy development. We also consider the level of air pollution as an important factor for the development of renewable energy sources. The results of the study show that there is a strong potential for clean energy sources in the Krasnoyarsk Region. The resulting matrix identifies the potential of energy sources across all the municipal entities and also indicates whether the source of energy is primary or supplemental and where several sources may be implemented in cooperation.
This article develops the concept of flexibility in HRM practices which can increase a company's potential to respond to substantial variation in the business environment. It reveals the characteristics of flexible HRM practices in Russian companies in an uncertain external and internal environment. Cranet survey data gathered from October 2014 until March 2015 is used for measuring the environmental uncertainty and flexibility of staffing, training and development, pay, employee relations and communication. A comparison of the flexibility indices for the four HRM practices show a higher level of flexibility in training and development practices. The research results confirm a direct positive relationship between the complexity of the environment and the flexibility of HRM practices.
The trend on electricity grids digitalization is gradually leading to the shift of busi-ness value towards more sustainable and efficient electricity services. Sustainability and efficiency are challenged by the increasing demand for electricity which is fol-lowed by a dramatic transformation of energy systems. While smart grids seem to be crucial in this process, there is a discrepancy in understanding the costs and benefits for the multiple actors involved. In addition, there are benefits of smart grids that cannot be measured directly in terms of money, such as higher energy system reliabil-ity or commitment to carbon reduction. Despite the rise of interest to the managerial aspects of smart grids implementation and development, many aspects remain out of the scope. This paper contributes to the research of smart grids by providing a con-ceptualized business model that would allow for value co-creation, delivery and cap-ture. A Russian energy sector perspective is primarily considered throughout the pa-per and the results are supported by evidence from interviews with of industrial ex-perts
Summary Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are increasingly recognised as global health priorities in view of the preventability of most injuries and the complex and expensive medical care they necessitate. We aimed to measure the incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for TBI and SCI from all causes of injury in every country, to describe how these measures have changed between 1990 and 2016, and to estimate the proportion of TBI and SCI cases caused by different types of injury. Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016 to measure the global, regional, and national burden of TBI and SCI by age and sex. We measured the incidence and prevalence of all causes of injury requiring medical care in inpatient and outpatient records, literature studies, and survey data. By use of clinical record data, we estimated the proportion of each cause of injury that required medical care that would result in TBI or SCI being considered as the nature of injury. We used literature studies to establish standardised mortality ratios and applied differential equations to convert incidence to prevalence of long-term disability. Finally, we applied GBD disability weights to calculate YLDs. We used a Bayesian meta-regression tool for epidemiological modelling, used causespecific mortality rates for non-fatal estimation, and adjusted our results for disability experienced with comorbid conditions. We also analysed results on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index, a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility. Findings In 2016, there were 27·08 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24·30–30·30 million) new cases of TBI and 0·93 million (0·78–1·16 million) new cases of SCI, with age-standardised incidence rates of 369 (331–412) per 100000 population for TBI and 13 (11–16) per 100000 for SCI. In 2016, the number of prevalent cases of TBI was 55·50 million (53·40–57·62 million) and of SCI was 27·04 million (24·98–30·15 million). From 1990 to 2016, the agestandardised prevalence of TBI increased by 8·4% (95% UI 7·7 to 9·2), whereas that of SCI did not change significantly (–0·2% [–2·1 to 2·7]). Age-standardised incidence rates increased by 3·6% (1·8 to 5·5) for TBI, but did not change significantly for SCI (–3·6% [–7·4 to 4·0]). TBI caused 8·1 million (95% UI 6·0–10·4 million) YLDs and SCI caused 9·5 million (6·7–12·4 million) YLDs in 2016, corresponding to age-standardised rates of 111 (82–141) per 100000 for TBI and 130 (90–170) per 100000 for SCI. Falls and road injuries were the leading causes of new cases of TBI and SCI in most regions. Interpretation TBI and SCI constitute a considerable portion of the global injury burden and are caused primarily by falls and road injuries. The increase in incidence of TBI over time might continue in view of increases in population density, population ageing, and increasing use of motor vehicles, motorcycles, and bicycles. The number of individuals living with SCI is expected to increase in view of population growth, which is concerning because of the specialised care that people with SCI can require. Our study was limited by data sparsity in some regions, and it will be important to invest greater resources in collection of data for TBI and SCI to improve the accuracy of future assessments.
This paper examines what kind of competencies the Russian hotel industry employers expect from hospitality MS graduates and compares them to the current Russian academic standards. The main data collection methods included content analysis of professional and educational standards and semi-structured interviews with hotel industry experts. The results of the study revealed that the competencies of the MS graduates were generally determined by the state educational standards. However, there was a discrepancy between the educational standards and the new professional standards applied in the hotel industry. Therefore, the need to monitor and match the educational outcomes with the industry requirements appears to be one of the main developmental problems in the Russian hotel sphere. This knowledge will help with better understanding of the complexities in the Russian hotel industry, which in turn will help Russian universities meet the hotel industry’s needs.
Over the past twenty years, developing firms’ capabilities in emerging markets have remained one of the main topics in management research (London, Hurt, 2004; Burgess, Steenkamp, 2006; Sheth, 2011; Cuervo-Cazurra, Newburry, and Park, 2016). The increasing interest is raised by questions about strategic capabilities development not only for firms in developed markets, but also on emerging markets, in particular in BRICS.
What core strategic capabilities should multinational and domestic firms possess to create competitive organization in Russia? In this paper, we try to answer this question with our pilot case study of six firms operating in the Russian high-tech, low-tech and services markets - four global companies, and two Russian. Our research shows that customer orientation is the crucial strategic capability, highlighted by all of the firms involved in the research. For multinational and high-tech players, this is followed by research and development, mentioned by two thirds of the respondents. Moreover, the four multinational companies leverage their strategic capabilities of cross-cultural management and general sales capabilities as keys for their success in Russia. Russian firms emphasize importance of entrepreneurship, understanding local customer needs, and an engaged team as strategic capabilities that particularly differentiate them from the multinational players in the Russian market.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to establish a connection between the business model (BM) and B2B marketing research by developing a new approach to the BM analysis and improvement, which is based on inter-organizational networks and value chains.
Design/methodology/approach – The methodology is based on mutual enrichment of methods and results of BM and B2B marketing studies that are relatively isolated from each other, and on integration of them to the unified structured approach that could be applied to analyze both BM and a set of interfirm relationships of individual market players. The paper is based on extensive literature review in the areas of BM and relationship/industrial marketing. The review is based on most cited and contemporary articles found in the Scopus and Ebsco databases.
Findings – The paper formulates the key BM research directions and visualizes their development over time. It is demonstrated in the paper that, currently, there is little involvement of marketing researchers in the study of BM, however, there are multiple touchpoints between these areas of knowledge, which can help in further developing BM studies. Based on these findings a conceptual model and new network-based approach to BM analysis is offered, which allows addressing the complex nature of networked interaction among BM participants. The approach includes stepwise algorithm for BM analysis designed for business practitioners.
Research limitations/implications – The proposed approach can be applied by business practitioners to analyze and improve their BM via managing the interactions of inter-organizational network participants with a focus on customer interests. While the approach is of a universal character, the specific tools for evaluating BM on each stage may vary across different markets.
Originality/value – This research contributes to the current conceptual knowledge on BM studies development and their relationship with marketing. It also contributes to theory and practice by the development of a new marketing-based approach to the BM analysis focused on managing business relationships, which allows evaluation of the current state of a BM and provides directions for its improvement. This approach evaluates the alignment of interfirm relationships along the value chain and orients it towards the final consumer.
Purpose – This articlepresents concepts and tools for developing place branding that protects places from overbranding, redundant promotion, and excessive tourism.
Methodology – The concept of a product-based place brand that reflects local ways of life and local identities was introduced was introduced. A combination of projective and typological methods was applied. Three focus groups composed of future place managers were held in three countries (N= 27) to develop place brand vocabularies − typologies of verbal characteristics of abstract places as products for internal users (residents).
Findings – In most cases, the place brand vocabularies were consistent and compatible within each abstract type and were unique (mutually exclusive) between the types. The vocabularies contained both detailed and more generalized elements. For each abstract place, short formulations of the general concept were found. Each brand vocabulary reflected the institutional, socio-psychological, cultural, historical, and geographic differences of the countries involved in the research.
Originality/value –A conceptual and methodological framework for creating place brand vocabularies is offered and it provides (1) close relationship between multiple brand attributes and their laconic expressions appropriate for communication and (2) high differentiation among brand attributes facilitates the recognition of branded places by target and non-target audiences. The framework is applicable for designing verbal attributes of place brands for specific places to avoid overbranding effects.
What are the core strategic capabilities the domestic and multinational firms should possess to do business successfully in Russia? In this chapter, we try to answer this question with our pilot case study of six firms operating on the Russian high-tech, low-tech and services markets - three global companies, one foreign (Germany), and two Russian. Our research shows that customer orientation is the crucial strategic capability, highlighted by all of the studied firms. For multinational and high-tech players, it is followed by research and development, mentioned by two thirds of respondents. Moreover, all of the four multinational and foreign companies leverage on their strategic capabilities of cross-cultural management and general sales capabilities as their keys for success in Russia.
Social innovation is the application of new solutions to social problems in areas such as welfare, health, education, youth unemployment, adaptation of migrants, and territorial integration of regions. Social innovations allow non-profits and other organizations to meet needs of society more effectively than existing options, respond to social challenges, offer new solutions to social problems, develop social interaction and create alliances. There are different types of social innovations. Most commonly the distinction is between product or service innovations and process innovations.
The past decade has seen rapid advances in the field of talent management in emerging markets. Despite talent management being a new term in the vocabulary business in this region, the vast majority of leading local-owned firms and MNCs implement talent management programs. However, much uncertainty still exists about how talents are attracted and selected in various industries in emerging markets. This paper compares talent acquisition practices of different talent categories in two large groups of companies in Russia: industrial and knowledge-intensive ones. A qualitative approach was chosen to conduct this exploratory study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 20 HR-experts from 13 industries from both MNCs and Russian-owned companies. Findings from the study show that knowledge-intensive companies use successfully both internal and external talent pools, while the vast majority of industrial firms put the highest priority on internal talent pools. We also introduce three types of selection systems: systems focusing on a single set of practices; systems with differentiated selection practices and systems with individual set of practices for each position. Interestingly, industrial companies tend to apply single set of selection practices to all talent categories, while knowledge-intensive firms select talents using differentiated practices or individual set of practices. Overall, this study sheds new light on talent acquisition practices applied in industrial and knowledge-intensive companies.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new research construct to depict more
accurately organisational structure and the direction of organisational changes in large
Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents an overview of the existing literature on
the phenomenon of anisotropy in natural sciences and the organisation of large corporations,
and transforms an identified phenomenon into a research construct of organisational theory.
Findings – This paper demonstrates that anisotropy, that is, the differences in the speed and
conductivity of the movement of capital (money), products (goods and services), ideas
(knowledge), and talent (people) in different directions within the corporation (from the centre
to the subsidiaries, from the subsidiaries to the corporate centre, and between subsidiaries) is
the normal state of the internal space of the multinational corporation. Anisotropy is
increasing with the on-going restructuring of the global economic order. This leads to the
divergence of business units in multinational corporations into the core and the periphery.
Theoretical implications – The paper outlines a series of promising research avenues in
Originality/value – The paper provides a novel treatment of the composition of multinational
In an increasingly global travel market, hospitality services encounters involve growing interactions between providers and customers often belonging to different nationalities and cultures and speaking different languages. Extant hospitality management literature has explored the influence of language on service evaluations mostly in offline settings. This study innovatively captures the effect of the language used in online hotel reviews on online consumer ratings in two distinctively different destinations located in culturally different countries: Italy and Russia. Based on almost half a million Booking.com online reviews written by hotel guests in Moscow and Rome, we illuminate if and to what extent domestic vs. foreign language use affects online customer satisfaction. We find that the use of domestic language exerts a positive impact on online ratings in both countries. Implications for hospitality practitioners and managers, developers and managers of online review platforms, and customers of hotel services are discussed.
Development of the russian energy sector seems to be rather promising (considering the speed and nature of the emergence of new technologies, such as digital power equipment, prognostic instruments, real-time payment techniques, etc.), however, there is no clear understanding of the potential demand level regarding specific technologies. frequently companies abandon research and development projects due to the uncertainty and risk of losing investments because of the absence of end-users. At the same time foreign suppliers of innovative solutions (including those for the energy sector) gain market power. Simultaneously, emerges the problem of strengthening competitiveness of the Russian federation regional economies in the view of tightening competition from foreign suppliers of innovative solutions including solutions for the energy sector.